Saturday, May 15, 2004

Research Paper

A Talk, Talk, Talk Society
Many people think that the world is going to hell. With all the disease, destruction, violence, terrorism, political upheaval, and pure chaos that are constantly nipping at our heels, many of us cannot help but be a little pessimistic about what the future has to bring. Although most Americans would like to think that all potentially damning events and devastation occur elsewhere in the world, we too have our own problems lurking right here at home. By simply turning on our television sets and flipping through the channels, we can plainly see the sex, violence, and war that is creeping into our homes and, consequently, into our minds and lives. Our country used to be seen as one that was untouchable, stable, and completely safe, but this attitude quickly changed in September of 2001. We received a sort of reality check that reminded us of the fragility of our government and ways of life. Attempting to safeguard ourselves from any further disasters or hostility, we implemented and stepped up various security procedures in hopes that our barriers could not again be broken down from the outside. Yet America faces a different menace, which instead of swiftly knocking us off balance slowly digs into our foundations and eats away at our cherished morals and values, bringing us down from the inside. This menace portrays radically heinous scenarios, creates false realities, and shamelessly flaunts all that Americans once viewed as wicked or immoral. It is none other than the TV talk show. Daytime talk shows, such as Jerry Springer, Maury, Montel, and Oprah, demoralize and deconstruct society and, therefore, should be considered a negative aspect of postmodernism.
In order to thoroughly understand how talk shows contribute to our country’s moral and social decline, we must first look at how television, as a whole, influences society. With all the “educational” programs present on the Discovery or History Channels, it would seem that television has a lot to offer society in terms of knowledge and cultural information. Yet, as with modern prime-time, the bulk of TV has become one big sexual, violent arena where producers continually challenge the boundaries of the acceptable and the extreme. Television, “[l]ike a child acting outrageously naughty to see how far he can push his parents, […] is flaunting the most vulgar and explicit sex, language, and behavior that it has ever sent into American homes” (New York Times qtd. in Allen 17). A result of this increased crudeness is a numbing and desensitizing effect that is promoting sexual promiscuity and violent behavior. Once shocked at the sight of a bellybutton or large amounts of blood, our society has come to accept almost complete nudity, images of various sexual acts, brutal wrestling matches, and footage of actual combat. When we see such images or situations on a daily basis, we cannot help but become immune to them. And because we emulate what we experience or view, scenes or scenarios acted out on stage or in studios are replicated in our daily actions. Various messages involving social situations or political views are also presented on TV. Whether by means of commercials or actual programs, this medium has become a way of influencing our decisions or feelings about certain “hot” issues, such as presidential candidates, abortion, war, drugs, and religion.
Television has significantly changed or challenged the ways Americans act and feel, but it has also taken the place of or destroyed our social lives and various “social institutions” (Abt and Seesholtz, Shameless World 175). “Television […] is a solitary pleasure […] Not only does [it] cut down on time spent with others, it cuts down on the need for others” (Stephens 127). Instead of mingling with members of our families or communities, we simply stare at our TV screens and watch the latest episode of a popular reality series. Children no longer go outside or play with friends, but are shoved in front of a television or voluntarily stay inside to watch cartoons or play video games. Because we are abandoning significant contact with other responsive beings, we are becoming isolated and introverted. Television and the characters portrayed on our favorite shows become our friends and our families; we idolize and look up to them, no longer needing real people (Tolson 33). “[T]elevision has become the center of our homes, our routines,” and we are constantly influenced by it (Abt and Mustazza 107). But when this overall influence is combined with the extreme effects of talk shows, society experiences an even more precarious deterioration of values.
(For the complete research paper see my BC blog)

Synthesis

Going…Going…Gone?
America has become an ever-lasting symbol of freedom, equality, hard work, prosperity, and open-mindedness, which shines brightly and glamorously towards many of the underprivileged and lesser-developed countries of the world. However, as some foreign peoples look to our nation in awe, some view it with disgust and anger, as do many Americans themselves. It seems that our country has lost some of its respectability and some of its values. No longer do school children respect their parents or teachers and no longer does the concept of hard work reach all corners of society. Crime and terrorism continue to evoke fear, television becomes more and more offensive, and the concept of a unified American people is becoming hideously unrealistic. Americans are becoming harsh, hypocritical, lazy, and obsessive.
A particularly frightening crisis facing our country is the maliciousness or unkindness present in our actions and opinions, but more importantly, our entertainment. As stated in “They Want Their Mean TV” by Karal Ann Marling, Americans are cruising along a destructive path resulting in “cultural nastiness” and “unbridled meanness” (577). Today’s television has become one of the most controversial topics debated over in public and private arenas, and has even become an issue explored by the government and manufacturers. The current generation has witnessed the birth of “a scintillating balance of sex and verbal violence” caressing the airwaves and, in turn, our eyes and minds (577). With cut-throat “reality” TV, talk shows, and various other heinous programs, Americans have shifted their attention to watch people “sweat, fret, scream, scheme, eat bugs, and diss one another in nastily amazing ways” (577). An unprecedented amount of violence and vulgarity is entirely noticeable on prime-time television and in the latest flicks at the box office. Numerous studies relate the overly-aggressive and violent members of society to television and other projected media; “nasty television produces nasty audiences” (578). By watching such violent and gory shows, Americans are becoming numb to the effects of death and pain, as well as compassion. “[H]umiliation—other people’s discomfort—is pleasurable stuff…Those are somebody else’s troubles on the screen, and, as such, [are] of no real consequence to [us]” (577-578). Sitting on our couches, watching the rampant guests of talk shows and the arguing members of the latest “reality” series, we simply watch, with mild interest, the drama unfolding before our eyes. We have become an unkind people because we love to watch others in their times of despair.
Harshness also relates to the attitudes Americans have towards other people, or even their own people. This country was founded on ideals of freedom, equality, and autonomy, but many of these liberties cease to apply to all members of society--particularly minorities. There exists a “sense of…measuring one’s soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity” (DuBois 563). We tend to determine a man’s worth by the color of his skin or by the beliefs he holds. This fact is also evident in an illustration entitled Cream of Wheat by Edward V. Brewer. A child is shown sitting in a wheel barrow with a whip in mid-air about to strike an old African American man who has stopped to light his pipe or a cigarette (565). This image represents how Africans were once treated as cattle pulling a young nation down a rough and rocky road that eventually would lead to ultimate success. America was carried along by slaves who harvested and fed our country, but we harshly treated them as sub-level humans. We are not a nation of total open-mindedness or acceptance; everything has become an issue of race or creed and hate crimes are becoming ever more popular. Even today, laws must be enforced to ensure that minorities receive equal benefits and positions in society. This harsh inequality eludes to yet another dilemma: American culture is hypocritical.
Equality is something that has never existed in this country and will never exist because of our history with slavery. Sure, we like to boast about how we have risen through the decades to become a tolerant and unbiased people, but we still have deep-rooted prejudices. Our nation is hypocritical in the sense that it forces people to lead double-lives, each of which are important, but defined and dictated by the other. W.E.B. DuBois defined this “sense of always looking at one’s self through the eyes of others” as double-consciousness (563). He believed that African Americans have two identities: the American and the Negro (563). They fall under the definition of American and should receive the same freedoms as the majority whites, but, under some invisible clause, are deprived of many of the privileges owed to them. Again, Brewer’s image points to a people that were the backbone of a struggling nation, but were simply treated as a means to an end. We esteem African Americans for their triumphs, but still do not esteem them equally with whites.
One aspect of culture that is not so deeply-rooted in the past is sloth, which has become one of the most destructive factors eating away at American society. Because our nation has become one of shortcuts, we go to great lengths to lessen our work loads or to invent some sort of gadget that will perform the most meaningless task in hopes that our lives will be made a little bit easier. Fast food, video games, televisions, and microwaves all contribute to this attempt, but they also contribute to our problem with a lack of exercise and movement. Marling points out that “life is…viewed in one’s living room, where mindless activity…rather than quiet attention seems to be the norm” (578). Because we tend to sit and stare at a television for hours on end, we are becoming an overweight and lethargic people. Such obesity and laziness is depicted in Richard Billingham’s Untitled, 1995. Although the photographer was British, his image clearly depicts how people “let themselves go” and turn into dirty, fat slobs. The photograph shows a woman sitting at her coffee table, putting together a jigsaw puzzle. Although this is a common activity, what makes this image genuinely crude is the sloth and physical appearance of the woman who is overweight, tattooed, greasy, and in an environment surrounded by cigarettes and clutter (553). Sloppy, soiled, and unkempt, digging through a box of puzzle pieces while trash piles rise from the floor, this woman represents one hideous, extreme way of thinking existing not only in America. This attitude is the result of subliminal messages flowing throughout our society, claiming that “to be unconcerned with the body or its needs…is much wiser than to care” (Bordo 560). Sloth and obesity are becoming cultural norms as they continue to ascend the charts documenting the leading killers of Americans. However, they are representative of an extreme viewpoint, the opposite of which involves obsession with the body rather than carelessness.
In this era marked by pictures, magazines, TV shows, and advertisements, we are fascinated with ourselves, our bodies, and images. Our nation has become obsessed with beauty and image because “it’s easier to wish ill to an un-pretty, un-famous face with missing teeth and acne scars” (Marling 577). As a result, we idolize the “beautiful” people shown on television or in movies theaters and turn to surgeons, dieticians, or personal trainers to give us the faces or bodies that we want. Despite the fact that professionals are available to help us reach our body-altering goals, many people turn to less conventional methods to get the results they want. Anorexia, bulimia, and numerous other eating disorders are incredibly common, as well as other forms of bodily harm. Such extreme and dangerous illnesses characterize “our increasing fascination with the possibilities of reshaping our bodies and selves in radical ways, creating new bodies according to our mind’s design” (Bordo 559). Such disorders stem directly from societal pressure and the constant reminding that “fat is one of the worst things [we] can be” (558). While some Americans let their bodies become cellulite-ridden sacks, others go to extreme measures that ensure physical “perfection.”
America faces many challenges as it steam-roles ahead into the 21st century. Many various and complicated problems are found deeply rooted in our short but complex history, while many others have only recently come to our attention. In a society so diverse and so intricate, we cannot help but have contradicting influences from every walk of life constantly nipping at our heels, and with entertainment and social issues still engrained in our memories, a numbing meanness has infested our minds and characters. Also, our bodies have become our demise. Americans are either obsessed or completely careless about their health or actions, and will either ignore their desires to farthest extent possible or will succumb to every impulse. Indeed our country does suffer from many internal conflicts that become more and more catastrophic each day, but are we, the Americans, at fault?